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dspace.mit.edu 檢索結果共 84617 筆,本頁資料從第 61 筆到第 72 筆

We estimate the costs of climate change to US agriculture, and associated potential benefits of abating greenhouse gas emissions. Five major crops' yield responses to climatic variation are modeled empirically, and the results combined with climate projections for a no-policy, high-warming future, as well as moderate and stringent mitigation scenarios. Unabated warming ....

By Ian Sue Wing,Erwan Monier,Ari Stern,Anupriya Mundra--IOP Publishing--2016-01-14
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Synthetic biological tools that enable precise regulation of gene function within in vivo systems have enormous potential to discern gene function in diverse physiological settings. Here we report the development and characterization of a synthetic gene switch that, when targeted in the mouse germline, enables conditional inactivation, reports gene expression and allows....

By Camila Robles-Oteiza,Sarah Taylor,Travis Yates,Michelle Cicchini,Brian Lauderback,Christopher R. Cas----2016-01-14
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Little is known about how mitotic cells round against epithelial confinement. Here, we engineer micropillar arrays that subject cells to lateral mechanical confinement similar to that experienced in epithelia. If generating sufficient force to deform the pillars, rounding epithelial (MDCK) cells can create space to divide. However, if mitotic cells cannot create suffici....

By Barbara Sorce,Carlos Escobedo,Yusuke Toyoda,Martin P. Stewart,Cedric J. Cattin,Richard Newton--Nature Publishing Group--2016-01-14
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Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are the most common tumours of the cerebellopontine angle. Ninety-five percent of people with VS present with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL); the mechanism of this SNHL is currently unknown. To establish the first model to study the role of VS-secreted factors in causing SNHL, murine cochlear explant cultures were treated with human tumou....

By Sonam Dilwali,Lukas D. Landegger,Vitor Y. R. Soares,Daniel G. Deschler,Konstantina M Stankovic--Nature Publishing Group--2016-01-14
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SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stop....

By Yong Gang Li,Yang Yang,Michael P. Short,Ze Jun Ding,Zhi Zeng,Ju Li--Nature Publishing Group--2016-01-14
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Many natural biological systems—such as biofilms, shells and skeletal tissues—are able to assemble multifunctional and environmentally responsive multiscale assemblies of living and non-living components. Here, by using inducible genetic circuits and cellular communication circuits to regulate Escherichia coli curli amyloid production, we show that E. coli cells can....

By Allen Y. Chen,Zhengtao Deng,Amanda N. Billings,Urartu O. S. Seker,Michelle  Lu--Nature Publishing Group--2016-01-14
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Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions pres....

By Timothy K. Lu,Nathaniel Bernard Roquet--Wiley Blackwell--2016-01-14
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To design and build living systems, synthetic biologists have at their disposal an increasingly large library of naturally derived and synthetic parts. These parts must be combined together in particular orders, orientations, and spacings to achieve desired functionalities. These structural constraints can be viewed as grammatical rules describing how to assemble parts ....

By Oliver Purcell,Jean Peccoud,Timothy K. Lu--American Chemical Society (ACS)--2016-01-14
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Cellular memory is crucial to many natural biological processes and sophisticated synthetic biology applications. Existing cellular memories rely on epigenetic switches or recombinases, which are limited in scalability and recording capacity. In this work, we use the DNA of living cell populations as genomic “tape recorders” for the analog and distributed recording ....

By Fahim Farzadfard,Timothy K. Lu--American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)--2016-01-14
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We examine the late time behavior of the Bunch-Davies wavefunction for interacting light fields in a de Sitter background. We use perturbative techniques developed in the framework of AdS/CFT, and analytically continue to compute tree and loop level contributions to the Bunch-Davies wavefunction. We consider self-interacting scalars of general mass, but focus especial....

By George Konstantinidis,Daniel Z. Freedman,Tarek Anous,Dionysios Anninos--Institute of Physics Publishing/SISSA--2016-01-14
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The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in ....

By Andreas Stergiou,Srivatsan Rajagopal,Elton Zhu--Springer/SISSA--2016-01-14
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Current antibiotics tend to be broad spectrum, leading to indiscriminate killing of commensal bacteria and accelerated evolution of drug resistance. Here, we use CRISPR-Cas technology to create antimicrobials whose spectrum of activity is chosen by design. RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) targeting specific DNA sequences are delivered efficiently to microbial populations usi....

By Robert James Citorik,Mark K. Mimee,Timothy K. Lu--Nature Publishing Group--2016-01-14
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