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Ultraviolet radiation of the sun is becoming increasingly known as the cause of many types of skin cancers. The most prominent cancers being basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma, the most severe and deadly of the three. With the current increase in these skin cancers, has come an abundance of studies concerning the mechanism and genes affected by ultraviolet radiation. Although still unclear, many studies are leaning toward a loss of heterozygosity on either the chromosome 9p21-22 region, 9q22.3, 17p13, and/or 4q32-35 as the cause of these serious skin cancers. Upon exposure to UV light, a cascade of photo-induced chemical and biological reactions takes place in the target tissue. A wide range of DNA lesions are caused by the UV radiation that damages the tissue. The UV-induced oxidative DNA damage can block DNA replication and lead to double-strand breaks (DSBs) resulting in loss of heterozygosity. Although the gene and mechanism are still under study, protective measures can be taken to protect oneself from UV-induced skin cancers, such as avoidance of sun exposure, wearing protective clothing, sunscreens, dietary protections, and knowing whether you are at high risk to develop a form of skin cancer from sun exposure. Not all protection is guaranteed, but some protection is better than no protection.