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國際與在地非政府組織在緬甸合作模式之研究

The Study of Cooperation Models between International and Domestic Non-governmental Organizations in Myanmar

作者:司徒宇
畢業學校:國立中山大學
出版單位:國立中山大學
核准日期:2016-01-15
類型:Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
權限:Copyright information available at source archive--National Sun Yat-sen University....

中文摘要

登盛於2011年就任緬甸總統後,實施了一連串改革開放政策,使得許多機構與學者認為緬甸已和過去大不相同,正邁向民主改革之路;然而,也有其他學者專家表示,緬甸雖有相當程度的開放,其本質仍是軍事政權,顯見各界對緬甸現況乃至未來走向之判讀存在不同的觀點。但不可否認地,緬甸雖進行政治改革,其政府能力不足,無法滿足人民需求的情況仍然存在,在緬甸社會亟需其他力量投入,協助解決國內問題的情況下,非政府組織於緬甸的角色便日益獲得重視。
本論文以納吉斯風災、少數民族與水壩建造等三個不同層面,卻對緬甸社會造成極大影響的議題為例,探討非政府組織帶來的幫助為何。首先,詳盡梳理納吉斯風災、少數民族與水壩建造等議題之發展變化,並闡述緬甸政府在其中造成的負面影響與無能為力之處。再者,由「非政府組織」的角度切入,探討「國際」與「在地」非政府組織於前述三大議題的各別作為與獨特貢獻。最後,以「跨國倡議網絡」(Transnational Advocacy Networks, TAN)的觀點作為發想,列舉國際與在地非政府組織合作的實例,並將國際與在地非政府組織面對納吉斯風災、少數民族與反壩運動等議題的合作內容,歸納為「幫補型」、「計畫型」及「訴求型」等三種模式。證明國際與在地非政府組織於上述三種模式下進行的合作,均能為處理緬甸國內議題帶來更大助益,而二者對緬甸的重要性沒有高低之分,其關係是「趨於對等的相互需要」。

英文摘要

In 2011, Thein Sein, the incumbent president of Myanmar implemented a series of reforms and opening up policies, which led many scholars and experts to believe that Myanmar was moving towards democratic reforms. However, other scholars contended that despite the considerable level of reforms and opening up, the essence of Myanmar’s political regime is still military. This highlights the divergent views and interpretations experts hold on the current and future issues of Myanmar. Even though political reform is a reality in Myanmar, it is also necessary to point out that the Myanmar government does not have the capacity to solve its domestic issues, hence the growing importance of NGOs.
Dealing with the emergence of NGOs in Myanmar, our research is based on three level of analysis: the natural disaster caused by the Cyclone Nargis, the ethnic minorities and the construction of dams. We discuss the impact of these three issues on the Myanmar society and investigate how the NGOs intervene to solve them. First of all, we will thoroughly look at the development of these three issues, the negative impact of the Myanmar government and its inability to solve the domestic issues. Secondly, from the perspective of “NGOs”, we will explore the contribution of the “international” and the “domestic” NGOs to these three issues. Finally, from the perspective of the Transnational Advocacy Network (TAN), we will discuss the relation between the international and domestic NGOs and the content of their cooperation on issues related to the Cyclone Nargis, the ethnic minority, and the construction of dams in Myanmar. The content of their cooperation will be summarized into three different types, i.e “aid and compensation type”, “project type”, and “demand type”. This will show how the international and domestic NGOs work together in a context of mutual needs to deal with the domestic issues of the Myanmar society.

 

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