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人類膝部在工作時之保護方式研究-以專業地毯舖設工為例

A Study on Human Knee Protection during Work Tasks - An Example of Carpert Layer

作者:黃萬福
畢業學校:大同大學
出版單位:大同大學
核准日期:2015-09-15
類型:Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
權限:Copyright information available at source archive--ttu....

中文摘要

要以跪姿完成工作任務是一些行業中勞工每日必要的活動像是:地毯舖設工、礦工、磁磚工、地板工、電匠、造船工、、等等。就美國勞動人力而言地毯舖設工的比例少於 0.06%,然而他們因為膝部職業性創傷補償金索賠供獻比例達 6.2% 。地毯舖設工的職業性膝部病變非常盛行。他們的工作時會多個來源會引起急性、慢性膝部創傷,包括長期的蹲跪姿態、來自尖銳物體的壓力、以及他們在舖設時需要以膝蓋部位踢擊 "膝踢器(Knee Kicker)" 未端的緩衝墊。
緩衝墊明顯的影響到踢力傳遞及安全,此研究首要目標在改良緩衝墊設計,以降低危害因子。設計一擺鎚式衝擊實驗機台當成評估裝置,並以衝量及彈性回復系數當成評估效標。新設計的緩衝墊以鑽盲孔方式改變整體剛固性並增加有效往前的衝力 15% ~138%,可降低操作需求和較輕的膝部負荷 (也就是說,以較少的踢擊能量就可達到相同的工作效率),而較軟的接觸表面增加操作舒適度。新設計的緩衝墊得之受測者主觀評量是正向的。
此研究的第二部分,則是針對工作護膝緩衝墊提出改良設計提議。黏貼在膝蓋上的可彎曲力感知器群組 (Flexible Force Sensor-FFS) 作為膝部受力判斷的主要裝置。它呈現:在跪姿期間選用適當設計的護膝,可降低膝上局部高應力集中現像。應此,新的護膝設計,應可橫跨膝部一個更大的表面重新分配應力,且要遠離膝部跪姿的關鍵結構擴到腳的其他區域是必要的。

英文摘要

Kneeling is a daily activity for some occupations like carpet layers, miners, tile layers, floor layers, electricians, shipbuilders and many others. Carpet layers comprise less than 0.06% of the United States workforce yet they submit 6.2% of compensation claims for traumatic knee inflammation. Cararpet layers have a high prevalence of occupational knee morbidity. Their work involves multiple sources of acute and chronic knee trauma including kneeling, pressure from sharp objects, and they need to frequently kick the bumper on the rear end of the knee kicker with one knee when laying a carpet.
Considering the bumper s marked effects on kicking force transmission and safety, the primary objective of this study is to improve the design of the knee-kicker bumper by reducing the risk factors. An improved pendulum-type impact-testing platform was designed as an evaluative apparatus, with the impulse and the coefficient of restitution serving as evaluative criteria.
The newly developed bumper has improved firmness from drilled blind holes and an increase in effective forward force of 15%-138%, which implies lower operational demands and a lighter knee burden (i.e., less kicking energy results in the same work efficiency), and a softer contact surface that enhances operating comfort. The newly designed kicker was positively reviewed by subjects.
The second part of this study, it is presented proposals for improved design work kneepad. The placement of the group of Flexible Force Sensor (FFSs) on the knee was found to be a major factor for the estimation of the force on the knees. It is apparent that proper kneepad design and selection can be an effective abatement to reduce the stress accumulated on the knee during kneeling work. The conclusion of this study is that novel knee pads designs that redistribute the stresses at the knee across a greater surface area and to other regions of the leg away from key structures of the knee are needed.


指導教授 - 吳志富

委員 - 吳俊杰

委員 - 許言

委員 - 王則眾

委員 - 唐硯漁


 

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