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In this study, polishing porcelain tile residuals were mixed with ceramic raw materials, and the properties of sintered ceramic tiles were characterized. The studies were carried out first by mixing different amounts of polishing porcelain tiles residual with clay minerals, feldspar and quartz, and then were sintered to ceramic stoneware tiles and earthware tiles. The sintering behaviors of the ceramic tiles, such as shrinkage, water absorption and bulk density, were investigated. The mineralogical phases and microstructure of sintered tiles were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy(SEM), respectively. The flexural strength of the sintered tiles with size of 10cm 5cm, were measured by a three point bending method.
The sintering temperatures of polishing residual content ceramic tiles decreased from 1220oC to 1120oC, when the residual content increased from 25 to 55wt.%. These samples had shrinkage around 9%, water absorption 2.3%, and flexural strength is higher than 43.1MPa. When the residual was used to prepare earthware tiles with 8wt.% calcium carbonate add it in, the working temperature range were increased, and it had flexural strength of 20.7MPa.
Mullite phase was observed from each fired stoneware sample. Relative higher mullite diffraction peaks were obtained from the samples sintered at higher temperature. The microstructure of the sintered samples had pores trapped inside the body. When tile residual were incorporated, it made more glass phase content in the ceramic tiles, and the sintering temperature range of the residuals added tile became narrow.