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日治時期戰爭體制下的建築及都市防空手法

The urban planning and air defense in Taiwan under Japanese rule during the World War II

作者:黃柏超
畢業學校:國立臺灣科技大學
出版單位:國立臺灣科技大學
核准日期:2016-01-15
類型:Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
權限:Copyright information available at source archive--National Taiwan University of Science and Technology....

中文摘要

西元1918年第一次世界大戰結束,在戰爭中出現了以往都未出現的軍種與攻擊方式-空軍與毒氣攻擊。空軍的出現使戰場逐漸由前線延伸到後方的城市。毒氣的攻擊也使世界各國暴露在化學恐慌之下。為了因應此兩種變化,各國開始發展各種防空防毒措施,而範圍從都市規劃到防空壕的設計。
由於臺灣地處中國西南沿海,在西元1937年中日戰爭開打後,「臺灣總督府」就著手進行臺灣的防空設施的設置。在西元1941年12月7日日軍發動珍珠港事件,日本正式向同盟國宣戰。西元1943年6月4日日軍在中途島海戰遭受美軍的毀滅性攻擊,自此日軍戰略由主動轉為被動。在西元1944年10月20日菲律賓戰役爆發,美軍為了防範由臺灣進攻的飛機,因此大規模的轟炸臺灣,防空設施因而成為「臺灣總督府」重要的建設。
本論文主要以西元1937年至西元1945年為主要研究時間,在面對新型態的戰爭之下「臺灣總督府」如何因應並保護臺灣島的民眾與各項設施。包含都市計劃以及防空壕等設施,分析並比較防空設施是否會因為戰爭的進度與兵器的進步而有所改變。
而根據研究也發現這些防空設施會因為時間的不同而有不同的型態,在防空壕的型態由木造覆土變為磚造覆土,後期回到木造覆土的型態。防護壁會因為所在的地點不同而有不同材料,在重要行政機關周圍會以石造為主,工業地區則會採用磚造與混凝土造。防空迷彩大多塗裝於屋頂,但重要的工業設施的牆壁與防護壁也會塗裝。偽裝則是施作於行政機關,用以遮擋建築物明顯的特徵。黑幕與遮光窗則是防止室內光線向外流出。而戰時都市計劃則會根據原有的都市計劃以及轟炸的戰略有所改變,例如「疏開空地」與「疏開空地帶」的劃設。

英文摘要

There ware two new technology appeared during the World War I. One is air force, another one is poison gas. By the air force, battlefield is not only in front line, but also in city where is far away from front line. And poison gas let every country under the chemical attack. For prevent those two technology attack, every country start to research urban planning and air defense facilities.
Because the location of Taiwan is next to the south-east seacoast of China, when the Second Sino-Japanese war broke out, Governor-Generals Office start to built air defense facilities in Taiwan. In December 7,1941, Japanese Navy attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese government declare war on Allied Power. But in June 4,1943,Japanese Navy was eliminated by U.S Navy at Battle of Midway. From that time, Japan ware attacked by U.S.A until to ended of the World WAR II. In October 20,1944, Philippines Campaign broke out, U.S Navy started bombing Taiwan which is for prevent the attack from Taiwan. The air defense become more and more important for Governor-Generals Office.
This thesis is studying about how Governor-Generals Office protect Taiwanese and belongings during 1937 to 1945. Including urban planning and air defense facilities. Analyze and compare those air defense facilities will change according to the war and weapons or not.
According to those research, we can found those air defense facilities will change by the war and weapons. The air-raid shelter s structure ware change from wooden to brick at first, but in the ended of the war, they back to wooden again. The protective wall have different types, if the wall is next to the government buildings, the structure will be stone, if the wall is next to the factories, the structure will be concrete or brick. Camouflage paint is not only used on roof, but also on the important factory s wall and protective wall. Camouflage screen is used on government buildings for hide the clear feature. Black curtain and window can cover the light which can come from inside to outside. And urban planning will change from the bombing strategy, such like dispersed space and dispersed zone.

 

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